神经网络实现-pytorch

参考:

神经网络实现-numpy

使用softmax回归进行mnist分类

PyTorch 进阶之路(四):在 GPU 上训练深度神经网络

使用pytorch实现3层神经网络模型ThreeNet

网络结构

ThreeNet是一个3层神经网络,输入层大小为784,隐藏层大小分别为20060,输出层大小为10,激活函数使用relu,评分函数使用softmax

网络参数如下:

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# 批量大小
batch_size = 256
# 输入维数
D = 784
# 隐藏层大小
H1 = 200
H2 = 60
# 输出类别
K = 10

# 学习率
learning_rate = 1e-2

# 迭代次数
epoches = 500

网络定义如下:

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class NNModule(nn.Module):

def __init__(self):
super(NNModule, self).__init__()
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(D, H1)
self.fc2 = nn.Linear(H1, H2)
self.fc3 = nn.Linear(H2, K)

def forward(self, input):
x = F.relu(self.fc1(input))
x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
x = F.log_softmax(self.fc3(x))
return x

def __copy__(self, device):
module = NNModule().to(device=device)
module.fc1.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc1.weight)
module.fc1.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc1.bias)

module.fc2.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc2.weight)
module.fc2.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc2.bias)

module.fc3.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc3.weight)
module.fc3.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc3.bias)

return module

mnist数据

pytorchtorchvision模块内置了MNIST类,用于下载mnist数据集`

利用torchvision.transforms将数据转换为Tensor结构并进行初始化

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transform = transforms.Compose([
transforms.Grayscale(),
transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize(mean=(0.5,), std=(0.5,))
])
  • Grayscale()PIL图像转换为灰度图像

  • ToTensor()PIL图像或numpy.ndarray数据转换为tensor,将原先$(H\times W\times C)$通道转换成$(C\times H\times W)$,同时将取值范围[0,255]压缩到[0.0, 1.0]

  • Normalize()对数据进行归一化,均值为0.5,标准差为0.5

利用torch.utils.data.DataLoader保存数据,方便打乱和批量加载

代码如下:

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def load_data(batch_size=128, shuffle=False):
data_dir = '../data/'

transform = transforms.Compose([
transforms.Grayscale(),
transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize(mean=(0.5,), std=(0.5,))
])

train_data_set = datasets.MNIST(root=data_dir, train=True, download=True, transform=transform)
test_data_set = datasets.MNIST(root=data_dir, train=False, download=True, transform=transform)

train_loader = DataLoader(train_data_set, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle)
test_loader = DataLoader(test_data_set, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle)

return train_loader, test_loader

pytorch实现

完整代码如下,实现pytorch gpu训练

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# @Time : 19-5-18 下午3:03
# @Author : zj

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torch.optim as optim
from torchvision import datasets
import torchvision.transforms as transforms
from torch.utils.data import DataLoader
import time
import copy
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import warnings

warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')

# 批量大小
batch_size = 256
# 输入维数
D = 784
# 隐藏层大小
H1 = 200
H2 = 60
# 输出类别
K = 10

# 学习率
learning_rate = 1e-2

# 迭代次数
epoches = 500


def load_data(batch_size=128, shuffle=False):
data_dir = '../data/'

transform = transforms.Compose([
transforms.Grayscale(),
transforms.ToTensor(),
transforms.Normalize(mean=(0.5,), std=(0.5,))
])

train_data_set = datasets.MNIST(root=data_dir, train=True, download=True, transform=transform)
test_data_set = datasets.MNIST(root=data_dir, train=False, download=True, transform=transform)

train_loader = DataLoader(train_data_set, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle)
test_loader = DataLoader(test_data_set, batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=shuffle)

return train_loader, test_loader


def compute_accuracy(module, dataLoader, device=torch.device('cpu')):
"""
计算精度
:param module: 计算模型
:param dataLoader: 数据加载器

"""
accuracy = 0
for i, items in enumerate(dataLoader, 0):
data, labels = items
data = data.reshape((data.size()[0], -1))
data, labels = data.to(device=device), labels.to(device=device)

scores = module.forward(data)
predictions = torch.argmax(scores, dim=1)
res = (predictions == labels.squeeze())
accuracy += 1.0 * torch.sum(res).item() / scores.size()[0]
return accuracy / dataLoader.__len__()


def draw(loss_list, title='损失图', ylabel='损失值', xlabel='迭代/20次'):
plt.title(title)
plt.ylabel(ylabel)
plt.xlabel(xlabel)
plt.plot(loss_list)
plt.show()


class NNModule(nn.Module):

def __init__(self):
super(NNModule, self).__init__()
self.fc1 = nn.Linear(D, H1)
self.fc2 = nn.Linear(H1, H2)
self.fc3 = nn.Linear(H2, K)

def forward(self, input):
x = F.relu(self.fc1(input))
x = F.relu(self.fc2(x))
x = F.log_softmax(self.fc3(x))
return x

def __copy__(self, device):
module = NNModule().to(device=device)
module.fc1.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc1.weight)
module.fc1.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc1.bias)

module.fc2.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc2.weight)
module.fc2.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc2.bias)

module.fc3.weight = copy.deepcopy(self.fc3.weight)
module.fc3.bias = copy.deepcopy(self.fc3.bias)

return module


def compute_gradient_descent(batch_size=8, epoches=2000):
train_loader, test_loader = load_data(batch_size=batch_size, shuffle=True)

device = torch.device("cuda:0" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")

# softmax模型
module = NNModule().to(device=device)
# 损失函数
criterion = nn.NLLLoss().to(device=device)
# 优化器
optimizer = optim.SGD(module.parameters(), lr=learning_rate)

loss_list = []
accuracy_list = []
bestA = 0
bestModule = None

batch_len = train_loader.__len__()
for i in range(epoches):
start = time.time()
for j, items in enumerate(train_loader, 0):
data, labels = items
data = data.reshape((data.size()[0], -1))
data, labels = data.to(device=device), labels.to(device=device)

scores = module.forward(data)
loss = criterion(scores, labels.squeeze())
optimizer.zero_grad()
# 反向传播
loss.backward()
# 梯度更新
optimizer.step()

if j == (batch_len - 1):
loss_list.append(loss.item())
end = time.time()
print('epoch: %d time: %.2f s' % (i + 1, end - start))
if i % 20 == 19: # 每个20次进行一次检测
start = time.time()
accuracy = compute_accuracy(module, train_loader, device)
accuracy_list.append(accuracy)
if accuracy >= bestA:
bestA = accuracy
bestModule = module.__copy__(device)
end = time.time()
print('epoch: %d time: %.2f s accuracy: %.3f %%' % (i + 1, end - start, accuracy * 100))

draw(loss_list, title='mnist', xlabel='迭代/次')
draw(accuracy_list, title='训练精度', ylabel='检测精度', xlabel='迭代/20次')

test_accuracy = compute_accuracy(bestModule, test_loader, device)

print('best train accuracy is %.3f %%' % (bestA * 100))
print('test accuracy is %.3f %%' % (test_accuracy * 100))


if __name__ == '__main__':
start = time.time()
compute_gradient_descent(batch_size=batch_size, epoches=epoches)
end = time.time()
print('all train and test need time: %.2f minutes' % ((end - start) / 60.0))

训练500次精度如下:

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best train accuracy is 99.997 %
test accuracy is 97.959 %
all train and test need time: 71.90 minutes

softmax/log_softmax和NLLLoss/CrossEntropyLoss

pytorch提供了多种softmax评分以及损失函数

评分函数

  1. torch.nn.Softmax:标准的softmax评分函数,在官网中提示了LogSoftmax有更快和更好的数值属性

     This module doesn’t work directly with NLLLoss, which expects the Log to be computed between the Softmax and itself. 
     Use LogSoftmax instead (it’s faster and has better numerical properties).
    
  2. torch.nn.LogSoftmax:在$Softmax(x)$的基础上添加了对数运算

损失函数

  1. torch.nn.CrossEntropyLoss:结合了$nn.LogSoftmax()$和$nn.NLLLoss()$操作

  2. torch.nn.NLLLoss:负对数似然损失(negative log likelihood loss

组合使用

所以得到隐藏层输出向量后,使用$nn.CrossEntropyLoss$或者$nn.LogSoftmax+nn.NLLLoss$就能够实现损失值的计算,如果想要输出评分值,那么使用$nn.Softmax$

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